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Basic knowledge of international dirty cargo transportation

by:CNS     2021-07-14
Basic knowledge of international dirty cargo transportation 2021-06-20 11:45:21 1. The operation mode of international air transportation International air cargo transportation has developed with the development of international trade and civil air transportation. The mode of operation of international aviation aircraft must be compatible with the requirements of international trade for international air transport. Therefore, in order to adapt to the needs of cargo transportation under different trade contracts, and also in order to reasonably use the transportation capacity of the aircraft and obtain good operating economic benefits, the current operation methods of international aviation aircraft can be divided into two categories, namely scheduled flight transportation. (Airline transportation) and non-scheduled flight transportation (airplane rental transportation). (1) Scheduled flight transportation 1. The concept of scheduled flight transportation is also called flight transportation. It refers to the fact that airlines use the aircraft according to the pre-designed flight schedule between the scheduled landing and landing stations of a specific route. There are often unspecified numerous The cargo owner provides regular and repeated transportation services, and an operation method in which the freight is calculated and collected in accordance with the freight rate or the agreed freight rate. The planes used for airline transportation are mainly passenger and freight mixed carriers, which carry passengers while also transporting small quantities of goods; however, some larger airlines also use all-cargo planes to open regular cargo flights on some routes with sufficient supply of goods. The flight has fixed routes and ports of call, regularly sails, and arrives at fixed points. Therefore, the use of flight methods for the circulation of goods between countries can enable the consignee and consignor to accurately grasp the time of departure and arrival of the goods, and ensure the safety and punctual transaction of the goods. Especially for transporting urgently needed commodities, luggage, fresh and living things, valuables, electronic devices, etc. on the international market, it has significant advantages. Because most of the flights use mixed passenger and cargo aircraft, and most of them are passenger-oriented, the space is limited, especially in the tourist season, airlines often meet the requirements of passengers first, and the limited space is even more insufficient, which cannot meet the timely delivery of large quantities of goods. It can be transported in stages and batches, which makes the airliner have great limitations in cargo transportation. 2. Classification Under the scheduled flight transportation mode, in addition to ordinary spare parts flight transportation and direct transportation, there are the following specific business types according to the cabin/board/container sales method, the source of goods and the organizational form. (1) Package cabin/board/box transportation. Package cabins and package containers (boards) are a sales method for regular air cargo transportation. In this way, the shipper needs to occupy part or all of the aircraft’s cargo hold, container, and pallet within a certain period of time according to the goods being transported, and the carrier needs to take special measures to ensure it. (2) Air express. Air express is different from general air mail and air cargo. It is a company that specializes in express delivery business and airlines, and sends special personnel to deliver between cargo owners, airports, and users at the fastest speed. For example, after receiving the consignor's entrustment, the courier company will send the goods to the airport as soon as possible to catch the fastest flight, and then use telex to notify the foreign agent of the flight number, the name of the goods, the consignee and its address. goods. After the flight arrives, the foreign agent picks up the goods and rushes to the consignee. This method is also called 'table-to-table' transportation. (3) Centralized consignment. As the air freight rate gradually decreases with the increase in the billable weight of the cargo, the heavier the cargo weight, the air freight forwarder or consolidator can obtain the more favorable freight rate from the airline. Therefore, the operation mode of centralized delivery of large quantities of goods has become the goal pursued by many consolidators, because it can obtain lower freight rates from airlines than other competitors. The air cargo market is currently still a highly price-sensitive market. Lower prices mean that it has a strong competitive advantage. Market sales will be very effective and will attract more shippers to deliver goods. The total amount will be further increased, and more favorable freight rates can be obtained from the airlines. (2) Non-scheduled flight transportation 1. The concept of non-scheduled flight transportation, mainly non-scheduled charter flight transportation, is another way of aircraft operation relative to flight transportation. Because this operation method requires opportunities in the market, There is no fixed route and port of call, and there is no pre-established flight schedule and rate. The parties must negotiate transportation conditions and sign aircraft lease contracts to arrange transportation in the market. Article 98 of the Civil Aviation Law of China (hereinafter referred to as the Civil Aviation Law) stipulates: “Public air transportation enterprises engaged in irregular transportation shall obtain the approval of the civil aviation authority of the State Council, and shall not affect the normal operation of air transportation.' Charter air transportation is Refers to the charterer renting the entire aircraft or several charterers jointly chartering an aircraft for cargo transportation. Chartered flights are cheaper than flights if they are used for round trips, and higher than flights if they are used one-way. Charter flights are suitable for the exclusive transport of high-value goods. 2. Classification According to the number of aircraft space chartered by charterers, charter flights can be divided into two types: the whole charter and part of the charter. (1) The entire charter. The entire charter is to charter the entire aircraft. It means that the airline leases the entire aircraft to the charterer in accordance with the conditions and rates agreed in advance with the charterer, and loads the goods from one or several air stations to the designated destination. transport. This method is suitable for transporting large quantities of goods and the freight is relatively low. However, the charterer of the entire charter plane should contact the airline one month before the cargo is shipped so that the airline can arrange the plane transportation and apply to the departure airport and relevant government departments for immigration, transit and related procedures. (2) Some chartered flights. There are two ways for some charter flights. One is to jointly charter the entire aircraft by several air cargo companies or shippers, and the other is to sub-lease the space of the entire aircraft to several air cargo companies by the charter company. Some charter flights are suitable for the transportation of goods that are less than the complete machine but have a large cargo volume (generally more than one ton). 1960
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