General terms of carriage for bulk cargo, general cargo, and bulk cargo: 2016-02-01 09:38:00 General terms of carriage for bulk cargo, general merchandise, and bulk cargo: The general terms of carriage are: LINER TERMS, FIO, FI, FO, FLOST. 1. Liner Terms: The shipowner is responsible for the loading and unloading of the liner terms, also known as the berth clause (BERTH TERMS) or the gross settlement clause (GROSS TERMS), which means that the ship owner is responsible for hiring stevedores, and is responsible for paying for loading, unloading and stowage. cost. Specifically, at the loading port, the charterer is only responsible for transporting the goods to the wharf, the side of the ship, and placing them under the ship’s hook, while the ship owner receives the goods at the ship’s hook and at the unloading port. The person is responsible for delivering the goods under the ship’s hook, and the charterer receives the goods under the ship’s hook. As for the division of fees, it is completely based on this. In shipping practice, some people mistakenly believe that as long as the contract has liner clauses, these kinds of transportation should be carried out in accordance with the conditions of liner transportation, but this is not the case. The so-called liner clause merely imitated the liner approach on the issue of the sharing of loading and unloading costs, that is, the shipowner shall bear the loading and unloading costs without involving other rights and obligations. 2. Regardless of loading or unloading FIO: FREE IN AND OUT The shipowner does not care about loading, regardless of unloading, the shipowner does not bear the loading and unloading fee clause (F.I.O.), also known as the in-cabin receipt and delivery clause. Under this clause, the owner of the ship is only responsible for receiving and delivering the cargo in the cabin, and the charterer hires stevedores in the two ports of loading and unloading, and bears the costs of loading and unloading. 3. Tube unloading regardless of loading FI: (FILO) FREE IN LINER OUT Shipowner tube unloading regardless of loading and lessor does not bear the loading cost clause (FREE IN) In fact, what we generally use as FILO is FREE IN u0026 LINER OUT, commonly known as 'regardless of tube unloading' The lessor does not bear the loading fee clause (FI), also known as the in-cabin receipt clause. Under this clause, the owner of the ship is only responsible for receiving the cargo in the cabin at the port of loading, and the cost of loading is borne by the bearer, while the cost incurred at the port of discharge is borne by the owner of the ship. 4. FO: (LIFO) LINER IN FREE OUT: (LIFO) LINER IN FREE OUT. This clause is also called in-hold delivery clause (FO). According to this clause, the shipowner pays the loading fee at the port of loading. , In the port of discharge, the owner of the ship is only responsible for delivering the cargo in the cabin, while the discharge fee is borne by the charterer. 5. Regardless of the terms of loading, unloading, stowage and trimming fees (F.I.O.S.T), the lessor shall bear the terms of loading, unloading, stowage and trimming fees, which is also called the terms of receipt, delivery and stowage fees in the cabin. This clause is completely contrary to the liner clause. The owner of the ship is not responsible for all costs related to loading and unloading. All hired stevedores and related loading and unloading costs shall be borne by the charterer. Under this clause, the lashing costs incurred for the shipment of bulky cargo And the required lashing materials should also be borne by the lessee. However, in order to avoid unnecessary disputes, when transporting bulky cargo, the word 'LASHED' should be specified in the contract to indicate that the ship owner is not responsible for the lashing fee. Similarly, if the words 'DUNNAGES' are added after the above regulations, it means that the lessor is not responsible for the cost of the space in addition to the above costs. The shipowner is not responsible for loading, unloading, and trimming. FLTu003dFIOST: FREE IN AND OUT, STOWED, TRIMMED is also called in-cabin receipt, delivery, and stowage costs. The shipowner is not responsible for all costs related to loading and unloading, and all hired stevedores and related loading and unloading fees shall be borne by the charterer. At present, the domestic bulk cargo and bulk cargo market usually uses three types: liner clauses (ie, tube loading and unloading clauses), F.I.O (regardless of loading, destination port regardless of unloading clauses) and F.I.O.S.T (regardless of loading, unloading and trimming fees).