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Characteristics of air transport supply

by:CNS     2021-07-09
The characteristics of air transportation supply 2021-06-20 14:31:31 air transportation demand is seasonal. In order to adapt to the seasonality of Guangzhou-Changchun logistics, airlines need to expand transportation capacity on existing routes, or have free available capacity to perform more flights. Although the increased cost of airlines due to the implementation of seasonal schedules can be compensated by increased revenue, it is difficult for airlines to adjust supply in the short term due to supply rigidity. This rigidity in supply limits the ability of airlines to effectively balance supply and demand. Generally speaking, airlines need to formulate schedules at least 6 months in advance and accept reservations one year in advance. Therefore, airlines must abide by the established schedules or face the related costs of re-setting the schedule; and, the fixed schedule has nothing to do with the schedule. Costs, such as investment in hub airport infrastructure, aircraft leasing, and payment of labor contracts, make airlines unsuitable to reduce their capabilities in the short term. The contradiction between the seasonality of demand and the rigidity of supply is a problem that most airlines, especially those that operate hub-and-spoke networks, must face, while other airlines that operate non-hub networks, such as Southwest Airlines, Relatively greater flexibility in supply. The air transport supply has the following characteristics. 1. Non-storability The products provided by air transportation are the spatial displacement of passengers or goods, which are intangible. Production and consumption are carried out at the same time, so they have the characteristics of non-storable. Due to the volatility of transportation demand, the relatively stable transportation capacity within a certain period of time is difficult to achieve a perfect match with transportation demand. Coupled with the characteristics of air transportation supply, it has brought great difficulties to transportation companies to balance production and service quality control. . 2. Integrity and stability of supply. Integrity of transportation supply refers to the matching of transportation infrastructure, transportation equipment, and means of delivery. The construction of transportation routes, airports, ports, stations and other infrastructure must be planned and matched with each other. , Together form production capacity and form an indivisible whole. If there is no overall concept in the design and planning, it will cause a shortage of capacity in some areas or routes, which will become a 'bottleneck' of transportation supply, and thus affect the supply capacity of the entire network. Air transportation is a two-way transportation supply. Although there are differences in the direction of demand, and some are even completely different, due to various reasons such as aircraft overnight and maintenance, the supply of air transportation is two-way balanced. The direction of transportation is a whole. In addition, demand also has obvious volatility in time, but the supply of air transportation is arranged according to the flight plan.Even if the capacity will be temporarily increased or decreased during a certain period, the supply of capacity has a Relative stability. 3. Part of the alternative transportation supply is composed of multiple transportation methods and the production capacity of multiple transportation companies. Since each method can realize the spatial displacement of passengers or cargo, there is a certain substitutability among various transportation methods, especially those with the same direction and similar transportation quality. At the same time, due to the differences in the characteristics of transportation products in terms of time, transportation direction, and transportation distance, passengers and cargo owners have different requirements for the economy, convenience, speed and other quality of transportation products and services, which makes different transportation methods or the same transportation method different. The substitutability of transport products between transport companies is very limited, and this restriction makes it possible to form a certain degree of monopoly in transport supply in a certain field for transport services with differences between each transport mode or the same transport mode. Therefore, the substitutability and irreplaceability of the transportation supply exist at the same time, and there is both competition and monopoly between the supply of the transportation market. 4. The externality of supply. If a person or enterprise brings harm or benefits to other individuals or society when engaged in economic activities, and they do not pay the corresponding costs or get the corresponding rewards, economics calls this phenomenon existence Externalities (. Air transportation will undoubtedly bring great externalities, both positive externalities-the pull of airport economy, etc., but also negative externalities-environmental pollution and traffic problems. 5. Balance of transportation supply and demand. Difficult to controlDue to the strong volatility of logistics air transportation demand from Guangzhou to Xi'an, the relatively stable transportation production capacity within a certain period of time is difficult to completely match the transportation demand, resulting in an imbalance between transportation supply and demand, and correspondingly causing air transportation companies Difficulties in balancing production and service quality control. The seasonal imbalance of air transportation demand leads to peak and trough changes in transportation supply in time, which results in an imbalance in the time distribution of transportation supply. Air transportation demand is spatially. There is directionality (the unevenness of demand for round-trip transportation), which results in a mismatch between transportation supply and demand, and thus forms the time and space differences in the production of transportation companies. In order to achieve the time-space combination of supply and demand, air transportation companies often have to pay for empty-load driving The cost of transportation, resulting in a waste of transportation capacity. Mastering market information and relying on science and technology to improve the coordination and distribution of transportation capacity is the key to the transportation industry to solve the time-space contradiction between transportation production and demand.
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