Characteristics of international ocean cargo transportation
The characteristics of international ocean cargo transportation 2021-06-20 21:32:49 Since international cargo transportation is the exchange of products worldwide, geographical location and geographical conditions determine that ocean transportation is the most important means. International ocean cargo transportation is an international logistics transportation method that uses natural ocean channels, referred to as ocean transportation. More than 80% of the total international logistics transportation and about 90% of China's import and export cargo volume are completed by ocean transportation. 1. Large transportation volume At present, ships are developing in the direction of large-scale. Due to the continuous improvement of shipbuilding technology, the carrying capacity of transport ships such as giant oil tankers, giant passenger ships, and general cargo ships is far greater than that of rail and road transport. The carrying capacity of a 10,000-ton ship is equivalent to the carrying capacity of 250 to 300 train skins, and the carrying capacity of a 500,000-ton oil tanker is equivalent to 12,500 train skins. 2. Low freight and low sea freight. According to the view of economies of scale, the transportation cost per ton is low because of the large volume and long voyage. The natural structure of maritime channels, ports and related infrastructures are generally government investment and construction. Merchant ships have large carrying capacity, long service time and long carrying mileage. Statistics show that the ocean freight of a pallet is only one-fifth of the railway freight, one-tenth of the car freight, and one-twentieth of the air freight. 3. Large passage capacity Ocean transportation uses natural waterways to extend in all directions without being restricted by roads and tracks, and its passage capacity is greater than that of trains and cars. If the political, economic and trade conditions change, the most advantageous route can be changed at any time. 4. Strong adaptability to cargo Ocean ships can adapt to a variety of cargo transportation needs, such as multi-purpose ships, special ships, etc., they also have strong adaptability to overweight and long cargo, and are easy to improve transportation technology to adapt to international logistics Transportation needs, such as large-scale facilities, etc. 5. Lower speed. Merchant ships have large volume and large water resistance, so the speed is lower, about 35 knots per hour, so the sailing cycle is longer, and it is not suitable for products and customers that require high transportation speed. 6. Higher risks Merchant ships sailing on the sea, due to the long time, are greatly affected by climate and natural conditions, and sometimes changes in the world's political situation may also bring risks to maritime transportation. All these make the ship's voyage difficult to be accurate, and the possibility of distress increases. Generally, there are 200 to 300 ships in distress in the world each year. For example, the strike on the west coast of the United States has had a great impact on my country's export trade.