development of sea transport service industry.
Chairman of the Indonesian Shipowners Association (INSA)
Oentoro Suryo said that domestic shipping companies cannot face foreign competitors, not only because of the shortage, but also because most of the ships operated by local shipping companies are too old.
The number of vessels operating in the country has rarely increased, as part of additional vessels operated by domestic shipping companies that come from shipping companies flying foreign flags.
Without the support of the banking sector, it is impossible for domestic shipyards to produce many vessels to make up for the shortage.
In addition, various taxes make it more costly to build new ships.
The development of shipping companies the country\'s shipping companies include those that provide domestic and international routes for import and export.
Domestic shipping enterprises include enterprises that serve national shipping, local shipping, pioneer shipping and self-employed ships.
There are also companies that operate special transportation services.
Ships that carry goods by themselves, such as fertilizers, wheat flour, cement, and timber. In 2003-
2007, the number of shipping companies operating in the country tends to increase.
According to the General Directorate of maritime communications, in 2003, there were 1,705 shipping companies in the country, including 1,030 in international shipping services.
There are 267 island routes, 408 special transportation services, and separate shipping companies.
In 2007, the number of shipping companies increased to 2,326, including 1,432 national shipping companies, 334 special shipping companies and 560 individual shipping companies.
This increase is due to the growing demand for maritime services, including exports, as well as domestic shipments that have banned foreign vessels from loading 13 kinds of goods since 2005.
The national shipping companies of the provinces are headquartered in the provinces of the country.
Jakarta has the largest DKI, followed by East Java, Riwu, East Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, North Sumatra and South Kalimantan. In 2003-
2007, the number of shipping companies in these provinces increased from 483 in 2003 to 688 in 2007, accounting for nearly 50% of the total number of shipping companies nationwide.
Jakarta has a greater advantage in the number of shipping companies, as it is the country\'s largest commercial center and needs to provide shipping services for domestic and international goods.
Jakarta has danjung prik, the country\'s largest seaport.
The second largest port is Tanjung Parak in East Java.
There are many harbors in Riau.
Jakarta also has the largest number of special shipping companies, including companies operating in various industries such as cement and chemical industries.
Most self-employed shipping companies are located in the islands of Riau and Riau.
With the increase in the number of domestic shipping companies, the number of ships is also increasing.
Earlier, the figure fell after the government imposed scrapping of ships over 25 years old.
The currency crisis and recession also led to the bankruptcy of some shipping companies.
But in 2003, the number of ships began to grow.
In 2003, there were 5,333 vessels in the country, reaching 7,154 in 2007, including 3,950 international vessels.
Island ships, 1,872 special service ships, 1,332 individually owned ships and Pioneer ships.
Ships using heavy-duty ton units are mainly tankers, general cargo and container ships.
Ships using GT units include private vessels, fishing boats and passenger ships.
The tug uses the IP unit.
Licensed ships and foreign ship agents Indonesia still relies in part on foreign ships on ships operated by licensed ships or agents to handle the transportation of domestic goods. In 2003-
During 2007, the number of foreign licensed ships operated by domestic shipping companies decreased from 2,447 to 1,154.
The number of foreign ships operated by agents increased from 6,629 in 2003 to 7,227 in 2007.
Many domestic shipping companies choose to hire foreign ships instead of buying new ones, as a lot of investment is required to buy or build new ones, especially in countries with high interest rates.
In addition, banks are still not enthusiastic about financing ship procurement.
Even if the import tax is canceled, the buyer must pay 10% VAT and 7. 5% income tax.
Payment of VAT may be delayed, but a license for a shipping company or vessel will be granted an operating license.
Shipping companies can use shipping certificates that must be updated every three months.
Maintenance also costs a lot of money because most components have to be imported and long term licensing procedures are required from the Ministry of Communications and trade and the Customs Excise Office.
So many or about 15%-
20% of the Indonesian shipping company\'s ships are registered abroad, especially in countries such as Panama, Honduras, Liberia and Singapore, which provide facilities to use the flag.
Ships flying foreign flags then entered Indonesia as chartered vessels.
For example, a registered ship in Singapore, in addition to the exemption from sales tax, does not require the owner to pay the registration fee.
Even the payroll tax for ship crew is waived.
Shipping companies flying foreign flags include PT.
Bailian old state tanker, PT.
PT. Arpeni Pratama Marine line
Intermoda tasi, PT.
Lumintu Sinar Perkasa and PT.
Taruna Coulson explosion
With the growth of non-oil/natural gas exports, the output of Indonesian marine goods has increased year by year. In the 2003-
During the 2007 period, ocean shipping from Indonesia increased from 0. 442 billion tons in 2003 to 0. 531 billion tons in 2007.
However, only a small portion of the cargo was loaded by Indonesian ships.
In 2007, the share of Indonesian ships, including charter ships operated by domestic shipping companies, was only 5.
8% or 31 million tons of goods shipped outside, and the rest of the goods are borne by foreign vessels.
The problem faced by domestic shipping companies in seeking to increase their shares is the terms of trade, which is always in favor of foreign vessels.
Almost all exports are FOB (Free on Board)
System and import in CIF (
Cost, Insurance, freight)system.
The terms of exports and imports are determined by foreign trading partners.
With the increasing number of foreign ship agents in the country, the dominant position of foreign ships in the transport of imported goods for export has been strengthened.
On the contrary, due to the protection of some countries, Indonesian shipping companies do not have the opportunity to have agents abroad.
Domestic shipping companies.
Even in domestic shipping, local shipping companies must compete with foreign competitors.
In 2007, the total number of domestic goods was 0. 228 billion tons, and the share of local shipping companies in the rest was only 65% or 0. 148 billion tons.
Aware of this disadvantage, the government declared the cabotage principle of banning foreign vessels from carrying 13 domestic goods.
According to the General Administration of maritime transport, in 2007, there were 2,326 national shipping companies in the country, of which 957 were members of the Indonesian Shipowners Association (INSA).
Outside of INSA, there are some shipping companies operating foreign ships through the Indonesian Association of shipping agents (ISAA)
There are also companies such as fertilizer, cement, wheat flour manufacturers, who do not use ships as their core business, but only to support the operation of their core business.
Shipping companies can be divided into four categories according to the type of goods: liquid cargo shipping companies, container shipping companies, general cargo shipping companies and bulk cargo shipping companies.
Some companies only deal with the transportation of certain types of goods, but some operate different types of vessels, such as dry bulk carriers, liquid carriers, natural gas carriers, chemical carriers, offshore shipping vessels and tugboats. State-
In 2007, the shipping company PT bahammadhiuna, which owns 10 ships, had a total capacity of 53,473 deadweight tons, mainly ordinary goods and bulk cargo ships.
Bulk freighters include KM Tarahan with a capacity of 11,096 deadweight tons, operating as a liner for loading National Coal
PT Bukit Asam, a state-owned coal mine company from tallahan to Surabaya coal-
According to a 15-year long term contract, the coal-fired power plant.
The barge operated by the company is called Tongkang bahsugadhiuna (6,500 DWT)
Used to transport cement from most states
It has cement to produce semen Tonasa to Marin da and Ma Chen.
Km adhiuna Jaya I and Km adhiuna Nugraha I (8,000 DWT)
Working in the country as a cable car for transporting ordinary goods.
Previously, the two ships transported logs and ordinary goods in nearby ocean transportation, such as Southeast Asian countries such as Japan, South Korea, China, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Papua New Guinea.
PT Jakarta Lloyd (all shipping companies (DL)
Established in 1950, it has a fleet of 14 ships with a total capacity of 85,620 deadweight tons.
Lloyds liner Jakarta serves international and domestic shipping.
It ships to Australia once a week.
In this country, it has at least eight routes, such as Jakarta--Belawan--
Makassar and Surabaya-Makasar--Surabaya.
Its international routes include Singapore--
Port Klang-Singapore-Singapore--Fremantle 1--Melbourne--Adelaide--Fremantle 2.
Its subsidiaries PT Dharma Lautan Nusantara and PT Daya Laut Utama operate in terms of cargo handling and ship repair.
Lloyds Jakarta has established partnerships with at least 35 major companies including Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Denmark, Japan, Australia, the Netherlands, Thailand, the UK, Norway and Belgium.
PT Pera Aram, Plum ai ma (Temas Line)
He became a listed company in June 2003.
The core business of Temas Line, established in 1987, is the international transportation of container goods
The island of this country.
Each route offers at least two services per month and up to seven services per month.
Service on the Jakarta route
Jakarta and Makassar
Pang tennak is the biggest contributor to his income.
In the past five years, the number of container goods has grown rapidly in 2005, reaching 160,000 standard boxes.
In that year, its total income reached yuan, which reached yuan in 2007.
In 2006 of Temas have 24 ships of fleet total capacity for 11,430 20 feet (TEU\'s).
In 2008, the company plans to strengthen its fleet with eight new ships, bringing the total number of its ships to 35.
Bailiang Laju Tanker (BLT)
Ships that carry liquid goods.
At present, the listed company has 81 ships with a total capacity of 10,296,601 deadweight tons.
Its domestic goods include crude oil and petroleum fuel (BBM)
Liquefied petroleum gas, liquid chemicals, vegetable oil and syrup.
BLT has a long 14-
Annual Contract for transportation of crude oil and BBM, short term 1-
4-year contract, mid-term 5-
9 years contract and long term contract
12-year contract to lease part of the ship to the state
It owns oil and gas companies.
BLT also has operations through its subsidiaries in ship leasing, ship escort, Ship Management and agency of foreign shipping companies.
Its business areas in the transportation of lubricants, liquid chemicals, liquid asphalt and vegetable oils cover ASEAN, East Asia and the Middle East, destinations are Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, Hong Kong, Taiwan, India, China, Vietnam, South Korea, Saudi Arabia and Iran.
To support its overseas marketing, BLT has established subsidiaries in the spot market for liquid chemical goods in Thailand, Singapore, China and Hong Kong.
And has established cooperative relations with subsidiaries in Singapore and China.
Leasing contracts between chemical producers and BLT include Celanese, EXCOM
Sab, Optimal Group, Sabic Southeast Asia, innistirindo, Tatsumi Marine and Shell.
The PT Berlian Laju Tanker Tbk was established in 1981 under the name of the PT Bhaita Laju Tanker.
The company began operating two tankers with a total capacity of 12,050 tons.
On 1988, the company changed its name to PT Bailian Laju Tanker.
Now, its ships have provided routes to almost all major markets in the world, with 81 ships in total, it includes 57 chemical vessels, 15 tankers, 8 gas tankers and 1 total capacity of 1. 94 million DWT.
Other major shipping companies include Arpeni Pratama Ocean Line (APOL).
APOL ships transport agricultural products, processed wood, pulp, steel, heavy equipment, operating areas covering East Asia, the Americas, Australia, Europe and the Middle East.
After acquiring Chembulk Tankers LLC at the end of 2007, APOL can provide transportation services around the world, including Europe and North America.
South America, the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, East Asia, the Far East and Australia.
At the same time, samdera, Indonesia and its subsidiaries, samdera Shipping Co. , Ltd.
For regional container transportation services, the Galaxy shipping service Sdn was established in cooperation with Yihe shipping. Bhd. in Malaysia.
The purpose of the cooperation is to predict the development of the hub port and the growth of business in the region.
To strengthen services in industrial transport, some subsidiaries will be merged to serve the transportation of coal, natural gas and refined oil products.
Using regional shipping networks, freight services have been expanded to increase their business networks in Asia.
This strategy is achieved by establishing Silkargo L. L. C.
Dubai in early 2003
Silkargo provides inbound and outbound logistics services including third-party and supply chain management services.
In Terminal Services, SI will participate in the bidding as an operator of a multi-purpose terminal under construction, operation and transfer (BOT)scheme.
Indonesia, a foreign shipping agency, still needs more ships to transport goods to the country.
The national shipping company can only handle the transportation of 65% domestic goods.
35% of domestic goods are transported by foreign vessels.
Foreign shipping companies even dominate international cargo transportation to and from Indonesia.
The share of foreign ships is 94.
There are only 5 left in 2%.
Domestic ship 8%
Therefore, domestic vessels have little effect in the transportation of import and export goods.
According to government regulations (PP)No.
82/1999. Allow foreign vessels to travel to and from Indonesian ports open to foreign trade by sea.
Foreign shipping companies are required to designate local shipping companies as agents.
National shipping companies designated as agents must have vessels flying the Indonesian flag equivalent to at least 5,000 gross tons (GT).
According to Minister of Communications Decision No.
33/2001 foreign shipping companies with cargo transport vessels to and from Indonesian ports, open to international trade, need to designate a national shipping company as the general agent.
As a result, many foreign shipping companies designate national shipping companies as their agents.
See table below.
In 2005, for the first time, the government adopted the Charter principle to prohibit foreign vessels or vessels flying foreign flags from carrying 13 kinds of domestic goods.
This policy is outlined in the presidential directive of 2005, which will be implemented in stages, starting with general domestic goods, including wood, processed wood, rice, fertilizer, cement, reserved for ships flying the Indonesian flag.
In 2008, the number of commodities such as palm oil, mineral products, beans, fish, fresh fruits and vegetables increased.
This figure will be further increased, including chemicals and other beans in 2009, coal in 2010 and oil and gas in 2011.
Batubala, director of shipping, said he was optimistic that the cabotage principle could be fully implemented as expected.
The Ministry of Transport estimates that when the cabotage principle is fully implemented in 2011, there will be an increase in requirements for shor, especially for general cargo ships, tugs and tankers.
As foreign vessels may no longer be involved in domestic shipping, the demand for such vessels will be high.
At the same time, the quantity of goods will continue to increase.