International cargo insurable risks and insurable benefits
International cargo insurable risks and insurable benefits 2021-06-20 19:11:08 Cargo may suffer various risks and losses during sea or other transportation. The insurance company does not insure all risks, nor does it indemnify all losses. In order to clarify the liability, the insurance company stipulates the various types of risks it underwrites and the compensation liabilities for the various losses caused by these risks in its various insurance clauses. Therefore, risks and losses in insurance business have specific meanings, rather than general references. The insured must first understand the content of risks and losses, and then can he correctly understand the responsibilities of various risks, and then he can apply for insurance in a targeted manner. 1. Insurable risk Risk refers to the uncertainty of future results in the process of people's life, production or decision-making on a matter, including the uncertainty of positive and negative effects. According to the different nature of the risk and the form of occurrence, that is, according to the uncertainty of its future results, risks can be divided into two types: pure risk and speculative risk. Pure risk is called static risk, which refers to the risk that only loss is possible but no profit opportunity. Speculative risk, also known as dynamic risk, refers to the risk that may cause losses and may also generate profits. Insurable risk, or insurable risk, refers to the risk that the insurer can accept underwriting. There are many kinds of risks, but it does not mean that all risks can be passed on and protected by insurance. In view of the characteristic that insurance is to protect the danger, insurance is actually just to insure and compensate for pure risks. These include losses caused by risks that are purely risky in terms of property, personal life, liability, credit, etc. caused by various reasons such as nature and society. Under normal circumstances, the insurer must have certain conditions to accept the underwritten risks. The main ones are: First, it is not speculative. In the international trade of goods, the rise and fall of prices and changes in exchange rates may benefit operators and may also bring them losses. Such risks in business operations are usually not covered by insurance. In other words, speculative risks are generally not listed as insurable risks. The risk that the insurer underwrites can only be the risk that only has the possibility of loss but no profit opportunity, that is, the risk of pure risk nature. Second, the loss must be calculated in currency. Any risk loss that cannot be calculated in currency cannot be an insurable risk. Because insurance is an economic compensation system, the risks passed on and the insurer’s liability for compensation are calculated in a certain amount of currency. However, in insurance, the risk of personal injury or death is an exception. Although it is difficult to calculate the loss of a person's disability or death incurred by money, in insurance business, it can be determined by signing an insurance contract and agreeing on the amount of insurance. Therefore, in a sense The loss caused by personal injury or death can also be measured by currency, that is, the risk of personal injury or death can also be regarded as an insurable risk. Third, it must be accidental and unpredictable. The risk underwritten by the insurer must be possible to cause losses due to the occurrence of this risk. If this risk loss will definitely not occur, there is no need to insure against it; if this risk loss must occur, the insurer generally is Does not accept underwriting. Therefore, only those risks that have the possibility of occurrence and cannot know in advance whether it will happen and what degree of loss will be suffered after occurrence, need insurance and enable the insurer to accept the underwriting. Fourth, it must happen by accident. Accidental risk loss refers to the loss that is not inevitable and is not caused by the insured's deliberate behavior: Fifth, there must be the possibility of a large number of subjects having major losses. The insurable risk must be that a large number of subjects are likely to suffer major losses. If a risk will only cause minor losses, then there is no need to seek protection through insurance. 2. Insurable interest Insurable interest is also called insurance interest, which refers to the interest of the subject matter of insurance. Only those with real interests have the right to insure the subject matter. If the subject matter of insurance suffers losses and the insured is not affected by any benefits, then he does not have insurance benefits.