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Ocean transportation

by:CNS     2021-07-12
Ocean transportation 2021-06-20 10:39:23 According to the different operating methods of ocean transportation ships, ocean transportation can be divided into liner transportation and charter transportation. 1. Liner transportation Liner transportation, also known as scheduled ship transportation, refers to the regular and repeated voyages of ships on specific or fixed routes in accordance with the pre-defined schedule to engage in freight business, and in accordance with the pre-announced fees A mode of transportation that charges freight at a rate. The water transportation method that sails in the established port order is gradually developed on the basis of irregular ship transportation, and it is one of the indispensable transportation methods in today's international ocean transportation. (1) Characteristics of liner shipping. In addition to the four characteristics of fixed routes, fixed rates, fixed ports, and fixed schedules, liner transportation also has the following characteristics: ① No charter party is signed between the carrier and the cargo owner, and only the contract issued by the shipping company A bill of lading (with detailed obligations and liability exemptions) on the rights and obligations of the carrier, shipper, or consignee, as a basis for dealing with related issues in transportation. ②In addition to carrying large quantities of goods, sometimes the consignor or consignee can be allowed to deliver or pick up the goods on the side of the ship according to the agreement, and the shipper is usually required to deliver the goods to the dock warehouse designated by the carrier for delivery, or unload the goods To the dock warehouse designated by the carrier, the consignee picks up the goods in this warehouse. ③The liner carrier is responsible for operations including loading and unloading of goods, warehousing, and closing, and is responsible for all costs, that is, all loading and unloading fees, warehousing fees, and closing fees are included in the amount specified in the liner rate table. ④Generally, there is no fixed quota for loading and unloading, and demurrage and dispatch costs are not included. ⑤The freight rate of liner is relatively stable, and it is less affected by the changes in the international shipping market, and the proportion of calculated freight in the price of goods is relatively low. ⑥ Generally applicable to the transportation of loose goods. (2) Liner freight. After the liner carrier completes the transportation of the goods according to the transportation contract, the remuneration obtained from the shipper is composed of two parts: the basic freight and the surcharge. The basic freight is the freight rate set by the liner company for the transportation of general cargo between the basic ports on the route; the surcharge is the additional freight charged by the liner company for some goods that require special treatment, or due to fuel, currency, and ports. , Such as overweight surcharge, overlength surcharge, optional unloading surcharge, direct flight surcharge, transshipment surcharge, port surcharge, fuel surcharge, etc. 2. Chartered shipping Chartered shipping is also called indefinite shipping schedule. It is different from liner shipping. There is no expected schedule and the port of call is not fixed. The route the ship sails, the type of goods transported, and the sailing time are all determined by the charterer's requirements and confirmed by the shipowner. The freight or rent is also agreed by the parties in the charter contract based on the chartering market. Chartered transportation is a water transportation method in which the charterer leases the ship to the ship owner for cargo transportation according to the agreement, and pays freight or rent to the ship owner at the agreed freight rate. In the world's total shipping volume of dry cargo, the proportion of chartered shipping is more than 80%. Chartered transportation is most suitable for the transportation of bulk cargo, such as industrial raw materials, ore, petroleum, coal, cement, sugar and various feeds. Due to the large volume of chartered transportation, the relatively single type of cargo, the few loading and unloading ports, and the fast turnover of ships, the unit transportation cost is low. This mode of transportation is flexible. According to needs and possibilities, ships can reach any port in the world. Once the volume of international trade increases rapidly and the tonnage of ships is insufficient, chartering vessels can be used to meet the needs of import and export trade.
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