Organizational Innovation of Railway Logistics
Organizational innovation of railway logistics 2021-06-20 11:10:38 Although railway freight has long-distance, large-volume, low-cost, safety and environmental protection and other technical and economic advantages, it still has greater advantages than modern logistics service concepts. gap. Optimizing the trunk line transportation organization and developing characteristic transportation products are the basic measures for the railway freight companies in major developed countries to consolidate the trunk line advantages and develop logistics. 1. Combined transportation The first combined transportation carried out by American railroads mainly includes two forms of TOFC loading 2 or 3 cross-span trailers on 85-foot or longer flatbeds and COFC flatbeds for loading 20-foot or 40-foot containers. Both of these modes of transportation are used to complete inter-city transportation by rail, while 'door-to-door' transportation is basically completed by cars. In the mid-1960s, U.S. Railways believed that if they wanted to compete successfully with roads, they must give priority to the development of TOFC. The development of container transportation was lagging. Later, with the improvement of the understanding of container multimodal transportation and the improvement of transportation conditions, U.S. Railways gradually paid attention to containers. The development of transportation. According to data from the American Association of Railroads (AAR), the U.S. rail combined transportation business has shown a sustained and steady growth trend. As of May 21, 2011, the combined transportation business volume has steadily increased. Compared with the same period in 2010, it has increased by 8.7%, reaching 4,234 trailers and containers per week. U.S. rail transport volume was 295,148 wagons per week, an increase of 2.3% compared to the same period in 1990. Compared with the same period in 2010, the weekly wagon volume of the eastern railroad in the United States increased by 0.9%, and the weekly wagon volume of the western railroad increased by 3.3%. In the first 20 weeks of 2011, U.S. Railways reported a total freight volume of 5.8 million wagons, an increase of 3.3% compared to the same period in 2010; 40 million trailers and containers, an increase of 8.8% compared to the same period in 2010. 2. Direct transportation Direct trains refer to the trains that depart from the dedicated line to the end of the dedicated line, and there is no reorganization in the middle. Deutsche Bahn operates about 1,100 direct freight trains every day, 70% of which are organized by temporary trains. Of the materials transported, 70% were mining and metallurgical materials. There are several types of freight trains that belong to direct cargo transportation: The first type is logistics train, which undertakes inter-factory transportation of large companies or large enterprises. The cargo owner has strict requirements on the operating time of this kind of train, and the operation plan is incorporated into its logistics management, which is closely integrated with the production and distribution process. This kind of train has strict and accurate information management and services, and can achieve the best material turnover or the least transportation. It is a new product that provides specific cargo owners with time-accurate transportation. Generally, it is a freight train that transports high value-added materials and is operated at a fixed point. The second type is the planned transportation of direct trains, which are bulk material cargo trains operated according to the plan negotiated with the cargo owner. The third type is a small amount of material transportation direct trains, which are flexibly organized and operated according to the source of goods: 3. Multimodal transportation Multimodal transportation is a transportation method mainly adopted by German logistics companies, and its proportion is about 67%, especially for many large logistics companies. , Attaches great importance to the use of multimodal transportation. In order to reduce the negative environmental and ecological impacts caused by the long-distance transportation of large trucks, and to improve the economy and rationality of cargo transportation, the German government vigorously promotes comprehensive transportation policies and encourages the development of roads, railways, water transportation, Air multimodal transport. For long-distance transportation, the government encourages enterprises to use railways, waterways and other transportation methods as much as possible, while the connection between the two terminals and the collection and distribution of goods are mainly road transportation. The German government has also adopted an active support policy for multimodal transport. For example, the load capacity of heavy-duty trucks combined with other modes (railway, shipping, etc.) can reach 44t, and the load limit of heavy-duty vehicles for a single mode of transportation is 40t, and multimodal heavy-duty vehicles are exempt from tax. Fees can be transported during holidays. The supporting infrastructure in Germany provides convenient conditions for the realization of various combinations of multimodal transport, the most important of which is road-rail combined transport, which is basically coordinated and organized by third-party logistics.