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Railway transportation facilities and equipment

by:CNS     2021-07-04
Railway transportation facilities and equipment 2021-06-20 12:02:26 Railway transportation technical facilities are composed of three parts: railway lines, station yards and auxiliary facilities. The railway line is the track-type passage where the train runs; the station is the junction or interface for passengers and goods to enter and exit the railway transportation system, and it is also the place where the train is prepared, inspected, dismantled, and marshalled; ancillary facilities include communications, signals, and electricity. Transportation control, operation management and supply facilities such as supply and water supply and drainage. 1. Railway line The railway line is composed of the track structure and the subgrade, culverts, bridges, tunnels and other buildings that support it. It bears the weight of locomotives, trains and goods, and guides their walking direction, which is the basis of railway transportation. (1) The level of railway lines can be divided into single line and double line according to the number of lines; according to the gauge, railway lines can be divided into wide gauge lines, standard gauge lines (1435 mm), and narrow gauge lines; according to the operating level The railway lines are divided into ordinary lines and express lines; according to the unit weight of the steel rails, the railway lines can be divided into heavy rail railways, general rail railways and light rail railways: Guangzhou to Yunnan logistics can divide the railway lines into passenger dedicated lines, passenger and freight lines according to the type of operation Mixed transportation and freight dedicated line. (2) Number of main lines In order to achieve high-density departures, urban rail transit generally builds two lines at a time in the initial stage, that is, the number of main lines of the line is two, and the trains run in one direction. In order to more economically adapt to the development of transportation demand, railway lines are designed as single-track, double-track or reserved double-track according to the initial volume of transportation and the growth of long-term transportation volume. The capacity of a single-track railway, calculated according to the current commonly used semi-automatic blockage, can reach up to the number of pairs of trains per day. The construction investment of a two-track railway is smaller than the investment of two single-track lines, but its traffic capacity is much larger than the sum of the capacity of the two single-track lines. The double-track railway is equipped with automatic blocking, and the train interval is 8 minutes, and the capacity can reach 180 pairs per day. At the same time, the train running speed of the double-track railway is higher than that of the single-track railway, and the running cost is also lower. (3) Subgrade, bridge, culvert, tunnel structure 1) Subgrade. The roadbed is the basic structure of the railway line to bear the load of the track and the train. According to the topographical conditions and the requirements of the line plan and vertical section design, the subgrade cross section can be built into three basic forms: embankment, road cutting and half-cutting. Its structure and construction requirements are basically the same as those of highway subgrades. The width of the top surface of the railway subgrade is determined according to factors such as railway grade, track type, track bed standard, shoulder width and line spacing. 2) Railway bridges. When railways pass through rivers, creeks, and valleys, bridges need to be built. The bridge is mainly composed of bridge deck, bridge pier structure and abutment. The bridge deck is the part of the track on the bridge; the piers and abutments include the abutments adjacent to the roadbed at both ends and the pier in the middle; the part that spans the two piers is the bridge span; the space between the two piers is called the bridge hole . According to the materials used in the bridge span, bridges can be divided into steel bridges, reinforced concrete, etc. According to the length of the bridge, it can be divided into small bridges, medium bridges, bridges, and super bridges. According to the purpose, it can be divided into railway dedicated and railway and highway dual-purpose bridges. 3) Culvert. The culvert is a structure that is set in the fill of the lower part of the embankment and can pass a small amount of water. 4) Tunnel. The railway tunnel is one of the main ways for the route to cross mountains and ridges. It also has the function of crossing rivers, lakes, seas and ground obstacles. (4) Track track plays the role of guiding the direction of the vehicle, bearing the pressure from the wheels, and spreading them to the roadbed. The track is composed of steel rails, sleepers, connecting parts, track beds, anti-climbing equipment and turnouts. The strength and stability of the track depend on factors such as the type of rail, the type and density of sleepers, and the type and thickness of the track bed. 2. Railway station yard is the basic production unit of railway transportation, including various railway stations and operation yards. According to the level of the station, it can be divided into special-grade stations and first to fifth-grade stations; according to the nature of technical operations, it can be divided into intermediate stations, section stations and marshalling stations; according to transportation objects, it can be divided into passenger stations, freight stations, and passenger and freight stations. 3. Signaling equipment Signal lights, signal flags or signals displayed with gestures in railway signals-hand signals; temporary signal boards, signal lights, etc. are called mobile signals; signal equipment installed at fixed locations are collectively called fixed signals. Among railway signals, fixed signals are the main signals. Fixed signal devices are generally divided into two types: signal machine and signal indicator. Signals are classified into color light signals, semaphores and locomotive signals according to their types. According to the purpose, it is divided into inbound, outbound, passing, approach, pre-sound, interception, hump, hump assist, re-display, and shunting signal. The signal indicator is divided into turnout, derailment, approach, departure, departure route, shunting, water crane and car stop indicator. The semaphore and color light signal should be high column signal. For color light signals, there are only a few semaphores that can be used as low-profile semaphores. In addition, those who need to install low-profile semaphores under special circumstances must be approved by the Railway Administration and reported to the Ministry of Railways for approval. In the same station or yard, generally the same type of semaphore should be used. In order to facilitate the observation of the locomotive driver, the signal should be set on the left side of the train running direction, or set on the center line of the line to which it belongs. When determining the location of the semaphore, in addition to meeting the requirements of the display distance, it is also necessary to consider the semaphore that will not be mistaken for the adjacent line. 1520
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