Scale Economy, Scope Economy and Network Economy of Transportation Industry
The transportation industry's scale economy, scope economy and network economy 2021-06-20 17:26:19 Guangzhou logistics company In economics, scale economy refers to an economic phenomenon in which the proportion of output increase is greater than the proportion of input factors; economy of scope refers to The cost of producing several products at the same time is less economical than producing them separately. Modern transportation activities also have economies of scale and scope. However, due to the complexity of the transportation industry network characteristics, transportation production and product measurement methods, each passenger and cargo displacement as a transportation product has different transportation objects, different transportation distances and The starting point and ending point and other elements, and the unit of measurement for transported products is only ton-kilometers (or person-kilometers) combined with weight and distance. Therefore, the total of transported products often includes many different transported products. The transportation production process forks should be reflected in the movable transport equipment and the fixed network, lines and nodes as the transportation infrastructure. Therefore, the economies of scale and scope of the transportation industry are inseparable, and together constitute the transportation industry network economy. The economy of scale in the transportation industry refers to the phenomenon that the average transportation cost continues to decrease with the expansion of the total transportation output on the network. The scope economy of the transportation industry refers to the phenomenon that the average cost of jointly producing multiple transportation products can be lower than that of producing each transportation product separately. The difference between the transportation industry's scale economy and scope economy concept and the general industry and commerce scale economy and scope economy concept is that this special multi-product industry makes its scale economy and scope economy almost inseparable, and makes them jointly constitute the transportation industry through an intersecting method. Internet economy. The related definitions are as follows. (1) The network economy of the transportation industry is defined as the phenomenon that the transportation network, due to the combined effect of the economies of scale and scope of the transportation network, causes the average transportation cost to continue to decrease due to the expansion of the total output of transportation. The network economy can also be seen as a combination of transportation density economy and size economy. (2) Transportation density economy refers to the phenomenon that the average cost of the transportation network is constantly decreasing due to the expansion of transportation output under the condition that the size of the transportation network (measured by the length of the line and the number of service nodes) remains unchanged. It includes route density economy, vehicle carrying capacity economy, fleet scale economy and node processing capacity economy, and it mainly belongs to the category of scale economy. (3) The economy of transportation area refers to the phenomenon that the total transportation output expanded in the same proportion as the transportation network area causes the average cost to drop continuously under the condition that the transportation density on the network remains unchanged. In addition to producing transportation distance economy to a certain extent, it is mainly embodied as scope economy. (4) Route density economy refers to the phenomenon that the average transportation cost on a specific route is continuously decreasing due to the increase of transportation density. (5) The economy of the carrying capacity of the means of transport refers to the phenomenon that the average transportation cost gradually decreases as the carrying capacity of a single means of transport increases. (6) The economy of scale of vehicle (ship, aircraft) fleet refers to the phenomenon that the average transportation cost gradually decreases with the expansion of the fleet size. (7) The economical processing capacity of the port station (or hub) refers to the gradual increase in the average cost caused by the increase in the throughput of the port station on the transportation network and the transfer of passenger traffic, trains, stowage vehicles, take-off and landing aircraft, and docked ships. Decrease phenomenon. (8) Transportation distance economy refers to the phenomenon that the average transportation cost keeps decreasing as the distance increases (that is, the distance decreases gradually).