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Sea way

by:CNS     2021-07-12
Ocean Shipping 2021-06-20 17:33:28 At present, the operating methods of international shipping vessels are generally divided into two categories: liner transportation (scheduled vessel transportation) and charter transportation (irregular vessel transportation). Liner transportation Liner transportation refers to a ship transportation method in which ships follow a fixed route, pass through a fixed port, transport goods according to a fixed schedule announced in advance, and charge freight at a published rate. The carrier is responsible for the loading and unloading of the goods. The freight rate has already included the loading and unloading costs of the goods. The carrier and the shipper do not count the demurrage and dispatch fees. Because of the timing, route, port and pricing, the uncertainty of liner shipping is relatively small. The goods carried are generally small-value trade goods. Nowadays, containers are mostly used as the transport unit, and the ocean bill of lading (B/L) is the main transport document. Chartering Transportation Chartering transportation is also called non-scheduled shipping. There is no scheduled schedule, route, port, and the ship completes transportation services in accordance with the terms of the charter contract signed by the charterer and the owner. According to the charter contract, the Guangzhou-Suzhou Logistics will lease the ship to the charterer to complete specific freight tasks and collect freight at the agreed freight rate. The cargoes transported by chartered vessels are mainly low-value bulk cargoes, such as coal, ore, grain, fertilizer, cement, wood, oil, etc. Generally, the whole ship is shipped, and the volume is large, and the volume of chartered transportation accounts for about 80% of the total maritime freight volume. The freight rate is relatively low, and the freight rate fluctuates with changes in market conditions. There are mainly three types of chartering methods: voyage charter, time charter and bareboat charter: (1) Voyage charter, voyage charter, is also called voyage charter, or simply 'voyage charterChartering method. Under this chartering method, the ship party must complete the cargo transportation service according to the voyage stipulated in the charter party, and be responsible for the operation and management of the ship and all the expenses of the ship during the voyage. The charterer pays the freight according to the agreement. The voyage charter party stipulates the loading and unloading period or the loading and unloading rate, and calculates the demurrage and dispatch charges. For charterers, the voyage chartering method is simple and convenient, the cost is easy to calculate, and there is no need to intervene in the operation of the ship. At the same time, in the chartering market, bulk cargo occupies a dominant position. Therefore, voyage chartering has been widely adopted by the market. In addition, the chartering market is also expressed in terms of voyage chartering rates. Voyage charter is divided into the following ways: ①Single voyage charter. Single-voyage charter, also known as one-way charter, means that the chartered ship is only loaded for one voyage, and the charter contract will be terminated when the voyage ends. Freight is negotiated by both parties according to the chartering market, and its calculation method is generally calculated by multiplying the freight rate by the number of loading or unloading or according to the whole ship's lump-sum freight. ② Charter boat for round trip voyage. Round-trip voyage chartering is also called round-trip chartering, which means that the chartering contract stipulates that after completing a voyage task, a return cargo is loaded and sometimes the freight is calculated separately according to the difference of the round-trip cargo. ③ Charter boats for consecutive voyages. Continuous voyage charter refers to the continuous shipment of several voyages on the same route. Often the cargo volume is large, and when a voyage cannot be completed, Guangzhou to Bozhou logistics can adopt such a charter method. In this case, the average voyage rent is lower than the single voyage rent. ④ Voyage time charter. Voyage time charter is also called time charter voyage charter. The charter of the ship adopts the voyage charter method, but the rent is calculated based on the time (days) required for the voyage. This charter method does not count the demurrage and dispatch costs, and the ship is not responsible for the operation and management of cargo transportation. ⑤ Charter the ship under the charter contract. The shipowner will send a number of ships within the agreed time limit to transport a large number of goods from one port to another under the same charter conditions. The number of voyages is not specified, and the contract is for the goods to be transported. This chartering method can reduce the pressure of chartering. For the shipowner, it is more flexible in operation. You can use your own ship to carry it, or you can rent another ship to complete the required freight tasks; you can use one ship multiple times For round-trip transportation, several ships can also be used for transportation at the same time. The cargoes transported under a charter contract are usually large and low-value bulk cargoes. ⑥ Chartered ship under contract. Contract chartering is a lease method in which the freight calculation and payment in the lease of the ship are settled at one time, that is, the charterer pays a whole freight for the deadweight or volumetric tonnage for its use, regardless of the actual quantity of goods loaded. The amount will be paid to the shipowner in accordance with the 'package freight' agreed upon by both parties. (2) Time charter Time charter is abbreviated as 'time charterDuring the charter period, the charterer pays the rent as agreed to obtain the right to use the ship, and is also responsible for the dispatch and management of the ship. Time charter rents are generally calculated based on a certain amount per month of the ship’s deadweight ton. The charter period can be long or short, as short as a few months, and as long as five years or more, even until the ship is scrapped. The object of time charter is the entire ship. The ship’s route and port of call are not regulated, but only the sailing area. Therefore, the Guangzhou to Fuyang logistics charterer can choose the route and the port of call according to the freight needs, which is convenient for the use and operation of the ship. Time charter also does not make specific provisions on the goods shipped by the ship, and can choose any suitable goods; the charterer has the right to dispatch the ship and is responsible for the operation of the ship, paying for marine fuel, various port fees, taxes, cargo handling and other expenses. (3) Bareboat charter Bareboat charter is also a type of time charter. The difference is that the owner does not provide crews, and only gives a blank ship to the charterer for use. The charterer is responsible for the operation and management of the ship. Management and navigation matters. For shipowners, they generally do not trust the ship to be controlled by charterers; for charterers, hiring and managing crews is very complicated, and charterers rarely use this method. Therefore, bareboat chartering is rarely used in the chartering market. 1273
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