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The development of freight forwarding

by:CNS     2021-07-07
The development of freight forwarding 2021-06-20 08:46:21 Freight forwarding has existed as early as the 10th century. With the establishment of public warehouses in ports and cities, maritime trade has expanded, and the freight forwarding industry has gradually developed. Now, this industry is developing rapidly abroad, especially when international trade competition is fierce and the division of labor in society is becoming more and more detailed, the role of freight forwarders is becoming more and more obvious. The international freight forwarding industry was initially a customs broker. Most of its employees came from international trading companies. The quality of the personnel was high and they could handle quite a lot for shippers.- Some international trade business and transportation matters, with the development of trade, gradually derive a specialized industry . In the course of its development, some countries have tried to cancel it, let the shipper and the carrier have a direct business relationship, and reduce the intermediate links, but they have not succeeded. Because the four main bodies that constitute the international freight market are cargo owners, freight forwarders, shipowners (or other capacity), and shipping agents, they cannot be confused with objects such as port terminals, yards, stations, and warehouses. Concurrent operations and cross-operations will make the international freight market more competitive. There is confusion. The English name of the international freight forwarder is FORWARDERS, and an international organization was established for it, namely 'Fiata' (Chinese translation name), the English abbreviation is 'FIATA'. Its member countries have grown to more than 150 countries and regions, with more than 5,500 international freight forwarding companies, and more than 18 million employees. The Guangzhou-Ili logistics line has established the International Freight Forwarders Association in China, Shanghai, Tianjin, Qingdao, Dalian, Jiangsu, and Shenzhen. The China International Freight Forwarders Association established by the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation will lead the associations and increase internationality. The organization becomes a member state. FIATA, established in 1926, is the largest non-governmental and non-profit international organization in the global transportation industry. It has been regarded as the spokesperson of the freight forwarding industry by many intergovernmental international organizations and has been recognized by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and the United Nations. International organizations such as UNCTAD and UNOITRAL act as transport consultants. Over the years, FIATA has achieved world-renowned achievements in unifying transportation documents and formulating freight forwarding model laws. In particular, FIATA multimodal bill of lading is used in freight forwarding business in more than 100 countries around the world, and its back clauses have been approved by the International Chamber of Commerce. And widely recognized by the international banking community. The development history of China's international freight forwarding industry is much the same as that of other countries in the world. As early as when trading with various parts of Europe and Asia through the Silk Road, there was the customs declaration industry. When Zheng He went to the South Seas, the Western Seas, and the east to Japan, he developed the shipping industry. After the founding of New China in 1949, China COSCO and Sinotrans established a fleet and continued to grow. With more than 1,800 ocean-going vessels and a carrying capacity of 22 million tons, the trade expanded to all parts of the world. Correspondingly, thousands of customs brokers have been established in the riverside and coastal port cities. There are 156 in Tianjin alone, with more than 800 employees, accounting for about one-seventh of the number and number of trading houses. At the time of the public-private partnership on December 31, 1955, the trading bank was under the control of the eight major import and export companies. The transportation department of each company was established on this basis, and some personnel were transferred from the middle to the Tianjin Sinotrans company. The logistics line from Guangzhou to Altay has since changed from social customs declaration to enterprise self-declaration, and the customs declaration section of each company has also become the international freight forwarder of each company. They have established network relationships with their counterparts in more than 160 countries in the world, laying a foundation of human, material and financial resources for the country's import and export trade and transportation. After the reform and opening up, China's international freight forwarding industry has changed from the sole agent of SINOTRANS to multiple operations, and the economic component has been changed from national ownership to Sino-foreign joint ventures, wholly foreign-owned, joint-stock, limited liability companies and other forms of ownership. After the system reform, the reporting department of the Sinotrans system and foreign trade professional companies have been impacted and tempered, and the characteristics of market economy competition have become increasingly obvious. From 1991 to 1994, it was the peak period of the development of the international freight market in China. At that time, the difference in freight rates between mainline ships and feeder ships was quite large, and the carriers and freight forwarders were very profitable. Beginning in the second half of 1994, the two-way shipping company entered China, narrowing the difference in freight, and gradually integrating with the international freight market freight rate. International freight has shown a tendency of small profits but more luck, which is greatly beneficial to cargo owners. However, carriers and even freight forwarders feel that competition is intensified and profits are declining. Weak carriers and incompetent freight forwarders withdrew from the market, and some of them fended for themselves. The freight rate is not controlled by the subjective will of the carrier and the freight forwarder, but is caused by the change in the supply and demand relationship between the source of the cargo and the capacity. As an international freight forwarding company, it can only provide information for the cargo owner and contract the source of the cargo for the owner in the fierce competition. Credit, service quality and actual effect obtain corresponding service benefits. However, the arrears of freight has affected the time value of funds of the freight forwarder and the carrier. The time value of funds exists in the form of interest. The reason for the arrears is caused by abnormal competition to solicit goods, which makes it difficult for the freight forwarding company to recover the account in the short term after the freight forwarding is advanced. , And even become bad debts. For this reason, the freight forwarding industry should adopt the measures of 'confirm payment and release bills' and 'release bills upon payment' to prevent overtime and cause financial losses. The Guangzhou to Heilongjiang freight line shall use this to clarify the freight property rights certificates, claims, and debts. This relationship enables it to protect the rights and reputation of the industry. In accordance with the laws and regulations of the country, the management department shall carry out macro-control to adapt to the rational layout of foreign economic and trade development, strengthen the standardized management of the industry, and the purpose of the management is to safeguard the legal rights and interests of the industry.
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