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The emergence and development of container transportation

by:CNS     2021-07-03
The emergence and development of container transportation 2021-06-20 12:43:57 Container transportation is the basic form of transportation modernization. It is the product of modern mass production and automated mechanical devices applied to the transportation field. It has its own history of production and development. . The formal container transportation of goods started from the British railway transportation in 1900, and it developed rapidly in the land transportation (railway and road transportation) in Europe, the United States, Japan and other places in the 1930s and 1940s. The development of container transportation in the world was in the late 1950s, that is, after container transportation was promoted to sea transportation. From 1967 to 1983, container transportation developed rapidly around the world, and it was a critical period for the world's transportation to enter the era of containerization. At this stage, the standardization of container types has been completed worldwide, the world's container holdings reached 4.4 million TEU, and container transportation tools (on land and sea) have gradually completed the transition from modified to dedicated, container dedicated A large number of docks and professional operation lines have been built and put into use, and large-scale special loading and unloading equipment (loading and unloading bridges, gantry cranes, etc.) and yard machinery have been put into use. At the same time, the traditional bulk cargo transportation management system (including management methods, technology, information management, etc.) has been comprehensively reformed, and a management system compatible with container transportation has gradually formed. By the mid-1970s, due to the impact of the oil crisis, the development of container transportation slowed down. This period is generally referred to as the development stage of container transportation. After 1984, the world economy got rid of the impact of the oil crisis, and the transportation of camouflaged containers resumed its steady development, bringing container transportation into a mature stage. The main characteristics of this stage are reflected in the following four aspects: First, the number of boxes, dedicated berths and operation lines, large-scale, specialized tools, and container cargo transportation (throughput) have increased rapidly, and the containerization of world cargo has become An unstoppable development trend; the second is that the hardware (transportation tools, routes, facilities, etc.), software (management methods, means, regulations, practices, etc.) and complete sets of technology of container transportation tend to be improved; the third is to enter the 'door-to-door' The stage of multimodal transportation; fourth, the theory and practice of container transportation are reaching perfection. It is worth noting that the development of container transportation in various countries is very uneven. The development of container transportation in developed countries has entered a mature period, while some developing countries are still in the development period. In recent years, my country's container transportation has also developed rapidly. Container terminals have been established in seaports such as Dalian, Tianjin, Qingdao, Shanghai, Guangzhou Huangpu, etc., which have improved the throughput and modernization of seaports. China's container terminal transportation has grown at an average annual rate of 35% during the 20 years of development. At the end of 2007, the domestic port container throughput exceeded 100 million TEUs, and China's container throughput ranked first in the world for 6 consecutive years. The rapid development of the domestic economy, especially the export-oriented economy, has driven the diversification of container terminal construction and operation. At present, there are more than zero berths for special container terminals in domestic ports with a capacity of more than 10,000 tons. The joint venture ratios of major coastal and inland container terminals account for ω% and 70% of the total number of container berths and the total throughput capacity of container berths. Among the major coastal ports As well as a number of small and medium-sized ports in the Pearl River Delta, there are container terminals operated by Sino-foreign joint ventures or even wholly foreign-owned enterprises. At present, container transportation is one of the fastest growing and more extensive forms of transportation in the world. In ensuring the safety of goods, saving packaging materials, Simplifying packaging and tally procedures, improving transportation efficiency, speeding up the transportation of goods, reducing transportation costs and improving transportation labor conditions have important roles and obvious effects.
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