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Characteristics of transportation supply

by:CNS     2021-07-06
The characteristics of transportation supply 2021-06-20 08:33:021. Transportation products are not storable. What the transportation market sells is not physical products, but transportation services that do not have physical forms, cannot be stored, and cannot be allocated. Consumers are in the transportation market. The purchase is not to directly occupy the transport products, but to realize the displacement of passengers and goods through transportation. The production and consumption of transportation are carried out at the same time. Therefore, transportation products cannot be stored, only transportation capacity. 2. The integrity of transportation supply The integrity of transportation supply is mainly manifested in two aspects: (1) Transportation infrastructure and carrying capacity match each other, forming an indivisible whole. (2) The transportation infrastructure is integrated. The transportation infrastructure can be divided into two parts: transportation lines and the stations, airports, ports and other facilities on the lines. The construction of infrastructure should be planned and designed in a unified manner, complemented with each other, and jointly form production capacity. If there is no overall concept in the design and planning, it will cause the transportation capacity in some areas or routes to be tight, which will become the bottleneck of transportation supply, which will affect the supply capacity of the entire network. 3. The imbalance of transportation supply. Transportation supply is affected by the freight rate and competition in the transportation market. The seasonal imbalance of transportation demand leads to the imbalance of transportation supply in time. The seasonal imbalance of transportation leads to the difference between peak and trough supply in transportation supply. There is a certain imbalance in transportation supply among different countries (regions). Due to the imbalance in the development of the world economy and trade, or the imbalance in economic development between various regions within a country, the transportation supply of economically developed countries (regions) is relatively sufficient, while the transportation supply of economically backward countries (regions) It is relatively lagging behind. 4. The substitutability and irreplaceability of transportation supply coexist. In the modern transportation market, there are multiple transportation methods and multiple transportation suppliers in the modern transportation market. There are sometimes several transportation methods or multiple transportation suppliers. Both can complete the spatial displacement of the same transportation object, so there is a certain degree of substitutability between these transportation supplies, and this substitutability constitutes the basis of competition between transportation methods. At the same time, due to the time regulation and spatial direction of transportation products, the substitution of different transportation supply methods is restricted; the technical and economic characteristics, development level, transportation costs, and division of labor in the transportation network of various transportation methods are different. Therefore, there are certain conditions for substitution between transportation methods. Therefore, the substitutability and irreplaceability of the transportation supply exist at the same time, and there is both competition and monopoly between the supply of the transportation market. 5. The time and space difference of transportation production The time and space difference of transportation production is caused by the irregularity of transportation demand in transportation time, the unidirectionality in transportation direction, and the adaptability of individual transportation requirements to transportation equipment. The time and space difference of transportation production caused by the mismatch of transportation supply and transportation demand. In order to realize the time-space combination of supply and demand, transportation companies often have to pay the price of empty-load driving, which causes a waste of capacity. Mastering market information and relying on science and technology to improve the coordination and distribution of transportation capacity is the key to the transportation industry to solve the time-space contradiction between transportation production and demand. 6. The externality of transportation supply. If a person or enterprise brings harm or benefits to other individuals or society when engaging in economic activities, and they do not pay the corresponding costs or get the corresponding rewards, economics calls this phenomenon There are externalities. Externality refers to a situation in which individuals or enterprises do not have to fully bear their decision-making costs or cannot fully enjoy their decision-making effects, that is, the situation where costs or benefits cannot be completely internalized. Individuals or enterprises do not have to bear the costs brought by their actions are negative externalities; individuals or enterprises cannot get the additional benefits brought by their decisions and actions are positive externalities. The transportation industry has strong externalities. In terms of positive externalities, the transportation industry provides society with considerable economic and social benefits, and the benefits it brings far exceed the costs that people directly or indirectly pay for transportation activities. . At the same time, the development of the transportation industry has had an excessive impact on the environment, and even caused serious damage. With the rapid development of transportation since the 19th century, adverse effects such as traffic accidents, congestion, noise, air pollution, and land occupation have become more and more significant. However, when transportation companies perform break-even calculations, the cost of transportation itself is not included. The social cost it brings has caused negative external effects. The passenger load factor has increased from 80% to 100% or 120%, accompanied by the deterioration of transportation conditions. Passengers must spend a lot of time and energy in the process of buying tickets, waiting for the bus, baggage check and baggage inspection, and the cost is caused. All are borne by consumers. The cost of retrofitting passenger stations and increasing ticket sales points is passed on to consumers through fare increases.
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